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Alexander, C. 2014. Urban Forests: The Value of Trees in the City of Toronto. TD Economics, Toronto, ON.


Bauer, LS, RA Haack, DL Miller, TR Petrice, and H Liu. 2004. Emerald ash borer life cycle. In: Mastro, Victor; Reardon, Richard, comps. Proceedings of the emerald ash borer research and technology development meeting; 2003 September 30 - October 1; Port Huron, MI.

Cappaert, D. 2005. Emerald ash borer in North America: a research and regulatory challenge. American Entomologist, 51(3): 152-165.


City of Toronto. 2010. Forest Health Care: Oak Wilt. Parks, Forestry, & Recreation: Urban Forestry Branch.


City of Toronto. 2013. Controlling Invasive Plants. Urban Forestry: Forestry Facts.


City of Toronto. 2015. Asian Long-Horned Beetle. Parks, Forestry, and Recreation. Retreived from: http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=f26fdada600f0410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD&vgnextchannel=470bdada600f0410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD


Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). 2000. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Adelges tsugae Annand Pest Risk Assessment. Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit, Science Division. Napean, Ontario.


Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). 2011. Emerald ash borer- Agrilus planipennis. Government of Canada. Retreived from: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pestrava/agrpla/agrplae.shtml


Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). 2012. Ceratocystis fagacearum (Oak Wilt) - Fact Sheet. Government of Canada. Retrieved from:  http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-protection/diseases/oak-wilt/fact-sheet/eng/1325629194844/1325632464641


Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). 2013.Questions and Answers: Wasps as biological control agents for Emerald Ash Borers. Government of Canada. Retrieved from:   http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-protection/insects/emerald-ash-borer/wasps/eng/1371137262586/1371137530758


Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). 2014. Adelges tsugae (Hemlock Woolly Adelgid) - Fact Sheet. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-protection/insects/hemlock-woolly-adelgid/fact-sheet/eng/1325616708296/1325618964954


Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). 2014. Agrilus planipennis – Emerald Ash Borer. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-protection/insects/emerald-ash-borer/eng/1337273882117/1337273975030


Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). 2014. Asian Long-Horned Beetle Regulated Area in Mississauga and Toronto. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-protection/insects/asian-long-horned-beetle/mississauga-and-toronto/eng/1388843368598/1388843478373


Centre for Invasive Species Research. 2014. Asian Long-Horned Beetle.  Regents of the University of California. Retrieved from: http://cisr.ucr.edu/asian_beetle.html


Chowdhury, Shahrina. 2002. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae). Introduced Species Summary Project, Columbia University. Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/Adelges_tsugae.html 


Cheah, C., M.E. Montgomery, S. Salom, B.L. Parker, S. Costa, M. Skinner, R. Reardon, B. Onken. 2004. Biological Control of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. Burlington, VT. FHTET-2004-04


Cornell University. n.d. Biological Control: Parasitoids. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Retrieved from: http://www.biocontrol.entomology.cornell.edu/parasitoids.php


Cornell University. n.d. Biological Control: Predators. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Retrieved from: http://www.biocontrol.entomology.cornell.edu/predators.php


Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County. 2010. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Adelges tsugae Annand. Cornell University: Insect and Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, New York. Retreived from: http://www.maine.gov/dacf/php/gotpests/bugs/factsheets/HWA-cornell.pdf


Department of Agriculture. 2014. Emerald Ash Borer: Biological Control of the Emerald Ash Borer. United States Department of Agriculture: Forest Service. Retrieved from: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/disturbance/invasive_species/eab/control_management/biological_control/


Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry. 2013. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Life Cycle in North America. Maine Forest Service, Maine. Retreived from: http://www.maine.gov/dacf/mfs/forest_health/insects/hemlock_woolly_adelgid_life_cycle.htm


Department of Natural Resources. 2012. Control Methods. Government of Wisconsin. Retrieved from: http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/invasives/control.html


Donovan, GH, DT Butry, YL Michael, JP Prestemon, AM Liebhold, D Gatziolis, and MY Mao. 2013. The relationship between trees and human health: Evidence from the spread of the emerald ash borer. American journal of preventive medicine, 44(2): 139-145.


Entomology Research Laboratory. 2005. Asian Longhorned Beetle: Research. University of Vermont. Retrieved from: http://www.uvm.edu/albeetle/research/


Fuller, RA, and KJ Gaston. 2009. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities. Biology Letters, 5:352-355.


Federal Register. 2003. Emerald ash borer, quarantine and regulations. 7 CFR Part 301, 68(198):59082–59091.

Forest*A*Syst. n.d. Best Management Practices (BMPs) to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Invasive Species. University of Georgia. Retrieved from: http://www.forestasyst.org/invasive_species.html


Gandhi, KJK, and DA Herms. 2010. Direct and indirect effects of alien insect herbivores on ecological processes and interactions in forests of eastern North America. Biological Invasions, 12(2):389-405.


Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Cryptococcus fagisuga. IUCN Species Survival Commission: Invasive Species Specialist Group. Retrieved from: http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1695

Hoffmann, MP and AC Frodsham. 1993. Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests. Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 63 pp.

HWA Coordinating Committee for the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Steering Committee. 2013. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Coordinated Commitment to Improved Management and Restoration of Hemlock: 2014-2018. Retrieved from: http://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/hwa/pubs/other_info/2014-18%20HWA%20National%20Initiative%20Strategic%20Plan_FINAL.pdf


Kovacs, KF, RG Haight, DG McCullough, RJ Mercader, NW Siegert, and AM Liebhold. 2010. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in US communities, 2009-2019. Ecological Economics, 69: 569-578.


Kremar-Nozic, E, B Wilson, and L Arthur. 2000. The potential impacts of exotic forest pests in North America: a synthesis of research. Can. For. Serv. Inf. Rep. BC-X-387.


Loo, JA. 2009. Ecological impacts of non-indigenous invasive fungi as forest pathogens. Biological Invasions: 11. p 81-96.


McLaughlin, J, and Greifenhagen S. 2012. Forest Research Note - Beech Bark Disease in Ontario: A Primer and Management Recommendations. Queen’s Printer for Ontario, Ontario Forest Research Institute: Ministry of Natural Resources.


Ministry of Agriculture. 2014. Emerald Ash Borer. Province of British Columbia. Retrieved from: http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/emerald.htm


Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs. 2013. Management Strategy for Emerald Ash Borer and Bronze Birch Borer - Insect Pests of Landscape Trees in Ontario. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www. a.gov.on.ca/english/crops/insects/eab-bbb-manage.htm


Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operation. 2013. Best Practices for preventing the spread of invasive plants during forest management activities: A pocket guide for British Columbia’s forest workers. Province of British Columbia.


Ministry of Natural Resources. 2012. Ontario Invasive Species Strategic Plan. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.


Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Ontario. 2012-2014. Asian Long-Horned Beetle. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from: https://www.ontario.ca/environment-and-energy/asian-long-horned-beetle


Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Ontario. 2012-2014. Beech Bark Disease. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www.ontario.ca/environment-and-energy/beech-bark-disease


Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. 2012-14. How government combats invasive species. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www.ontario.ca/environment-and-energy/how-government-combats-invasive-species


Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. 2012-14. How you can combat invasive species.  Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www.ontario.ca/environment-and-energy/how-you-can-combat-invasive-species


Natural Resources Canada. 2012. Mountain Pine Beetle. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://tidcf.nrcan.gc.ca/en/insects/factsheet/2816


Natural Resources Canada. 2013. Control of Exotic Pests. Government of Canada. Retrieved from:



Natural Resources Canada. 2014. Insects and Diseases. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/forests/insects-diseases/13361


OFAH/OMNR Invading Species Awareness Program. 2012. Asian Long-horned Beetle. Retrieved from: http://www.invadingspecies.com.


OFAH/OMNR Invading Species Awareness Program. 2012. Beech Bark Disease. Retrieved from:http://www.invadingspecies.com.


OFAH/OMNR Invading Species Awareness Program. 2012. Oak Wilt. Retrieved from:http://www.invadingspecies.com.


Ontario Biodiversity Council. 2011. Ontario’s Biodiversity Strategy, 2011: Renewing Our Commitment to Protecting What Sustains Us. Ontario Biodiversity Council, Peterborough, ON.


Ostry, ME, ME Mielke, and DD Skilling. 1994. Butternut – strategies for managing a threatened tree. USDA For Serv North Central Forest Experiment Station, Gen Tech Rep NC-165, p 7.


Ostry, ME, and PM Pijut. 2000. Butternut: An underused resource in North America. HortTechnology 10: 302–306.


Parks Canada. 2009. Through compound eyes: a closer look at mountain pine beetle. Government of Canada, Gatineau, Quebec. Retrieved from: http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/docs/v-g/dpp-mpb/sec2/dpp-mpb2c.aspx


Pimentel, D, R Zuniga, and D Morrison. 2005. Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecological economics, 52(3), 273-288.


Poisson, G, and M Ursic. 2013. Recovery Strategy for the Butternut (Juglans cinerea) in Ontario. Ontario Recovery Strategy Series. Prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario.


Poland, TM and DM McCullough. 2006. Emerald ash borer: invasion of the urban forest and threat to North America’s ash resource. Journal of Forestry, 104(3): 118-124.


Sheu, S. N .D. Foods Indigenous to the Western Hemisphere: Butternut. American Indian Health and Diet Project. Retrieved from: http://www.aihd.ku.edu/foods/Butternut.html


Tanis, SR, and DG McCullough, 2012. Differential persistence of blue ash and white ash following emerald ash borer invasion. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 42:1542-1550


Troy, A, and K Bagstad. 2009. Estimating ecosystem services in southern Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario.


University of Vermont. n.d. Butternut Canker Disease. University of Vermont Forest Pathology. Retrieved from: http://www.uvm.edu/~dbergdah/butnut/butnut.html


USDA-APHIS/CFIA. 2014. Mulit-state detection map. Cooperative Emerald Ash Borer Project. Retrieved from: http://www.emeraldashborer.info/files/multistate_eabpos.pdf


Vermont Invasives. n.d. Forestry Best Management Practices. Vermont Invasives: Actively Conserving our Environment. Retrieved from: http://www.vtinvasives.org/plants/prevention-and-management/forestry-best-management-practices


Waldron G. 2003. Trees of the Carolinian Forest: a guide to species, their ecology and uses. The Boston Mills Press, Toronto.


Wilcove, DS, D Rothstein, J Bubow, A Phillips, and E Losos. 1998. Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. Bioscience 48 (8), 607 – 615.

Wulder, MA, CC Dymond, and B Erickson. 2004. Detection and monitoring of the mountain pine beetle. Natural Resources Canada. Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Victoria. Information Report BC-X-398.