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Forest Invasivesbreadcrumb separatorMeet the Speciesbreadcrumb separatorInsectsbreadcrumb separatorSpotted Lanternfly

Spotted Lanternfly

French common name: N/A

Scientific name: Lycorma delicatula

Order: Hemiptera

Family: Fulgoridae

 

The spotted lanternfly (SLF; Lycorma delicatula) is native to Southern Asia, and is currently a problematic invasive pest in South Korea. It was first detected in North America September 2014 in Pennsylvania, US. The adult insect feeds primarily on a non-native tree, the tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), although nymphs are known to attack a wide range of native hardwood and fruit trees. Grape vines are a preferred host plant of the spotted lanternfly nymphs which can attack en masse. Currently, intense management efforts are underway in PA with a focus on public awareness, detection surveys, and eradication. If this species becomes established in North America and spreads to Canada, it could be a formidable threat to industry and the economy -- of special concern for the fruit orchard and grape product industries.   

 


Photo: Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture, 2015

Spotted Lanternfly nymphs on tree-of-heaven 



Quick Tips:

  • Do not move insect or egg masses (check items that are stored outside, such as vehicle, outdoor furniture, picnic tables, planters, boats, children’s play furniture – especially if stored outside under tree of heaven)

  • If you have a business, check your product before you ship, especially if you are leaving a quarantined area

  • Be on the lookout for egg masses “If you see it, scrape it” – scrape off egg masses into plastic bag, seal and throw away

  • Report all sightings 


Learn about the Spotted Lanternfly

The Insect

Physical Description

Eggs:  brown, seed-like, covered in a mud-coloured secretion to form an egg mass.

Nymph: 4 growth phases (instars).  Immature nymphs are black with white spots, and gain red spots as they mature.

Adult:  brown coloured forewings with black spots, hindwings have a deep red colour.


Photo: Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org

Adult spotted lanternfly

 

 

Photos: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture , Bugwood.org 


Life Cycle

The spotted lanternfly completes its life cycle in one year:

  • Eggs hatch into nymphs in late spring (May) and enter a cycle of ascending-descending host trees

    • Nymphs ascend trees to feed on leaves and branches, and frequently fall due to environmental conditions (wind), and ascend the tree again

  • There are 4 instars of SLF nymphs. After hatching from eggs in May, the nymphs mature through the 4 stages, until they develop into adults in mid-summer (July)

  • Feeding takes place from May until November

  • Feeding preferences change as insect matures: wide range of host trees as immature nymphs, but specifically target a few species as adults (i.e. Ailanthus and Salix)

  • In late summer, adults will mate and lay eggs

  • Insects overwinter as eggs within an egg case; adults do not survive through winter 

Photo: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org

Spotted lanternfly egg mass


 Photos: from Park et al., 2009

Spotted lanternfly nymphs (early instar (3) and late instar (4))

 

Host Trees

As a nymph, the spotted lanternfly feeds on a wide range of plants and trees. Over 65 potential host species have been recorded, including:

  • Tree of heaven

  • Willow

  • Maple

  • Poplar

  • Prunus spp. (plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, almonds)

  • Apple

  • Pine

  • Grape (vine)

As an adult, the spotted lanternfly mainly feeds on the Ailanthus (Tree of Heaven), although has also been observed on a few other species, including Salix (Weeping Willow).

For a full list of host plants, click here 

 
Photo: Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org Photo: Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org


Host trees for the spotted lanternfly include tree of heaven (pictured left) and grape vine (pictured right) 

Signs & Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of spotted lanternfly include:


  • muddy-grey egg masses on or around host trees until eggs hatch in late spring

  • dark streaks or sap flowing down the bark of the tree resulting from the spotted lanternfly piercing the bark to access phloem and sap in order to feed

  • honeydew secretions (insect secretions) at the base of a host tree that can become covered in a sooty-coloured mold

  • increased bee and wasp activity due to exposed sap and honeydew

  • adult insects congregating on host trees (especially Ailanthus) in the fall

 


Photo: Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture

Spotted lanternfly covered egg mass (bottom), adult (center), uncovered egg mass (top).



 

 
Photo: Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org

Build-up of honeydew secretions at the base of a tree, a sign of a heavy spotted lanternfly infestation.

Distribution

The spotted lanternfly is native to Southern Asia, including China, India, Japan, and Vietnam. Recently, it has become a problematic invasive pest in South Korea.

The first North American detection occurred in October 2014 in Pennsylvania, U.S.A. As of March 2017, quarantined areas exist within counties in Pennsylvania (see map).

In November 2017, the Spotted Lanternfly is Confirmed in Delaware.

 Map: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, 2017

 


 

Impacts

Due to the recent detection and limited distribution of SLF in North America, impacts have not been widespread. Feeding damage in PA from adults has been observed on Ailanthus and Salix, although no tree mortality has been reported. Literature from Korea reports that the nymphs do the most damage, feeding on and destroying grape vines and other hosts en masse. In addition, due to SLF’s wide range of hosts during immature life stages, it has the potential to result in widespread damage on a broad range of species.


Economic Impacts

In Pennsylvania where this pest has been detected, impacts on the economy are possible. The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (2014) stated that the spotted lanternfly “poses a significant threat to the state’s more than $20.5 million grape, nearly $134 million apple, and more than $24 million stone fruit industries.  Pine and hardwood logging in Pennsylvania also accounts for $12 billion in sales.”

Similar economic concerns exist if this pest were to establish itself in Ontario. Ontario has a prominent wine and grape industry, with a total economic impact of $3.3 billion (see infographic; Frank, Rimerman & Co. LLP, 2013), including impacts on jobs, taxes, and tourism. In addition, Ontario’s $43 million tender fruit industry (including peaches, pears, plums, and nectarines) (Ontario Tender Fruit Producer’s Marketing Board, 2014), $60 million apple industry (Ontario Apple Growers, 2015), and $1 billion logging industry (NRCan, 2012) are all threatened by the potential arrival of the spotted lanternfly.

As the spotted lanternfly was only recently introduced to North America, little is known about the extent of damage that it will cause. Although it is too early to make accurate predictions on actual economic impacts, the wine and grape, tender fruit, apple, and forestry industries are at the greatest risk.  

 
2013 Report, Canada's Wine Economy - Ripe, Robust, Remarkable. Commissioned by the Canadian Vinters Association, the Winery and Grower Alliance of Ontario, the BC Wine Institute, and Winery Association of Nova Scotia. 

The spotted lanternfly attacks many important agricultural trees and plants, including the grapevine. If this invasive species were to establish in Ontario, it would threaten the $3.3 Billion wine industry. 


Ecological Impacts

Impacts to ecosystems may be less significant than impacts to agricultural areas, but are still possible. Damage on tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), the main host of the adult spotted lanternfly, is of low ecological concern – Ailanthus is a non-native tree species originating from China and is frequently the focus of other control and eradication efforts.  However, other potentially susceptible host trees include native species, such as willows, maples, and poplar. The extent of impacts on these species is unknown, as spotted lanternfly has only recently been detected in North America, but could have negative overall impacts on forest health. Even if SLF does not cause tree mortality, the stress induced from an infestation could weaken a trees defenses, and make it more vulnerable to attack from other insect or pathogen species. 


Social Impacts

The spotted lanternfly threatens vineyards and fruit orchards, which can result in significant social impacts if the insect becomes established. For example, popular summer activities could be impacted, such as apple picking, enjoying fresh produce from farmer’s markets, or wine tasting at local vineyards.

In addition, buildup of egg masses and insect secretions (honeydew) can cause damage to patio furniture, garden ornaments, and cars.

This insect can also impact the aesthetic value of healthy forests, by causing dark streaks of sap to appear on the bark of impacted trees, and the growth of dark sooty-coloured mold on honeydew secretions. 

 
Photo: Phil Bull, Geograph project (Wikimedia commons)

The spotted lanternfly threatens many species of orchard trees. In addition to threatening the industry, there are potential social impacts including impacts on summer activities such as apple picking, enjoying fresh produce from farmer’s markets, or wine tasting at local vineyards

Manage

Until more is known about this insect and its threat to Ontario and the rest of Canada, management efforts should focus on awareness and education. This will increase the likelihood of early detection and control of the spotted lanternfly if it arrives here.


Regulate

Quarantine zones have been established in PA to limit distribution, slow the spread, and possibly eradicate SLF.

Initially, 6 townships within Berks County, PA quarantined (November 2014).  As of April 2017, 72 townships in 6 counties in Pennsylvania had quarantines.

Many items are quarantined such as outdoor furniture, crated materials, vehicles, campers, stoneware (tiles), firewood, and nursery stock; SLF insects lay eggs on anything with a smooth surface outdoors

TIP: Check car for egg masses before leaving a quarantined area!

 


Detect



Detection surveys are being conducted to track the infestation of SLF. These surveys are mostly visual, but sweep netting and tree banding also aid in detection. Visual reconnaissance surveys are being done with the help of volunteers and citizen scientists. Any SLF egg masses that are detected are confirmed, recorded, and scraped into plastic bags containing an alcohol solution to kill them.


Map: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, 2017

Results of 2014-2017 detection surveys in Pennsylvania  


Respond & Control


Where spotted lanternfly has been detected in Pennsylvania, several control options are available. These methods are used in combination on a site-by-site basis.

Mechanical

  • Scrape egg masses off infested trees – use a flat object (such as a knife or plastic card) to scrape egg masses off the tree trunk. Seal the egg masses in plastic bag and dispose, or place egg masses directly into hand sanitizer or alcohol to kill.

  • Tree Banding – adhesive paper bands will be placed around high risk trees (tree of heaven) to capture SLF as they ascend and congregate on the trunk. Tree bands are routinely removed and disposed of to kill SLF individuals. 

  • Tree Removal – Removal of infested trees, and high-risk host trees (tree-of-heaven) up to a quarter mile (400 m) from an infested site

 
Photo: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, 2015

Spotted lanternfly nymphs collected on tree band. Tree banding is both an effective detection method and control strategy for spotted lanternfly  


Chemical
Insecticides can be used by licenced applicators to control SLF populations. Insecticides will be applied to host tree stands from the ground level; aerial applications are not being considered. The primary insecticide being considered for SLF eradication is Dinotefuran, which will be applied according to label regulations and landowner consent.

The efficacy of other insecticides are being tested on small-scale experimental plots. These insecticides include bifenthrin, pymetrozine, and Beauveria bassiana strain GHA. If these prove to be effective, they may be added to the SLF eradication program at a later date.

 

For more information on spotted lanternfly eradication and control in the United States, see The USDA Spotted Lanternfly eradication program (May 2015)



Scientific Research

Since its detection in 2014 in Pennsylvania, research on spotted lanternfly has been rapidly expanding. Currently, researchers from government and academia are investigating topics such as:

  • Tree band volatiles – Studies are ongoing to develop and test volatile (pheromone) combinations that will increase tree band efficacy by increasing attractiveness to SLF

  • Host trees – A wide range of potential host trees exist for SLF, with some estimates of over 65 species. A tree banding study on a wide range of potential host trees (30 – 40 species) will determine which species present in North America might be impacted by SLF

  • Impact on grape vine – Grape vine is thought to be at the greatest risk from SLF. Researchers are working to assess the extent of this risk in North America.  

 

Resources

Resources

 
Photo: Holly Raguza, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture

Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Spotted lanternfly webpage 
  Host plants used by the spotted lanternfly (Penn State)


References


Frank, Rimerman & Co. LLP (2013). The economic impact of the wine and grape industry in Canada: Canada’s Wine Economy – Ripe, Robust, Remarkable. This study was commissioned by the

Canadian Vintners Association, Winery and Grower Alliance of Ontario, British Columbia Wine Institute, and the Winery Association of Nova Scotia.

Kim, J. G., Lee, E. H., Seo, Y. M., & Kim, N. Y. (2011). Cyclic behavior of Lycorma delicatula (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) on host plants. Journal of insect behavior, 24(6), 423-435.

Natural Resources Canada (2012). Statistical Data: Ontario domestic economic impact. Accessed July 2015 at https://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/statsprofile/overview/on

Ontario Apple Growers (2015). Apple facts. Accessed July 2015 at http://onapples.com/all-about-apples/apple-facts.php

Ontario Tender Fruit Producer’s Marketing Board (2014). 35th annual report and financial statements for the year ending January 31st, 2014. Accessed July 2015 at http://www.ontariotenderfruit.ca/uploads/file/2013-Tender-Fruit-Final-with-Financials.pdf

Park, J. D., Kim, M. Y., Lee, S. G., Shin, S. C., Kim, J. H., & Park, I. K. (2009). Biological Characteristics of Lycorma delicatula and the Control Effects of Some Insecticides. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology.

Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences (2015). Host plants used by the spotted lanternfly. Accessed July 2015 at http://extension.psu.edu/pests/spotted-lanternfly/news/2015/host-plants-used-by-spotted-lanternfly

Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (2015). Spotted lanternfly. Accessed June 2015 at http://www.agriculture.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_75292_10297_0_43/AgWebsite/ProgramDetail.aspx%3Fname%3DSpotted-Lanternfly%26navid%3D12%26parentnavid%3D0%26palid%3D150

U.S. Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (2015). Spotted lanternfly eradication program in Berks, Lehigh, and Montgomery Counties, Pennsylvania – Environmental Assessment May 2015. Accessed July 2015 at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/ea/downloads/2015/slf-berks-lehigh-montgomery-pa.pdf