Adults: bright metallic green wood-boring beetles, 8 -14 mm (about ½ inch) long and 3-3.5 mm (1/8 inch) wide, body elongated, head flat. The dorsal surface of the abdomen (underneath wings) is usually a bright red colour.
Pupae: 10 -15 mm long, creamy white in colour when it first forms and takes on adult colouration as it develops.
Larvae: 25 - 32 mm long at maturity, creamy white in colour, brown head, flat, broad shaped body; 10-segmented abdomen (bell-shaped segments) and a fork-like appendage on the tip of the abdomen.
Photo provided by Taylor Scarr, OMNRF
Photo provided by Taylor Scarr, OMNRF
Emerald ash borer adult and larvae (left), and adult with extended wings (right)
Adult beetles actively feed on host plant foliage throughout their lives. Adults lay eggs in crevices on host tree bark, under bark scales; peak oviposition period typically occurs between late June and early July in temperate regions (Bauer et al., 2004) but may vary depending on factors such as latitude and local climate. To hatch, larvae chew through the side of the egg that is stuck to the bark, and bore into the sapwood, phloem, or cambium part of the bark, where they form pupal chambers and overwinter. When EAB populations become large enough, larval feeding under the bark girdles the tree, eventually leading to tree death. Pupation occurs in the early spring. When development is complete, the adult EAB will chew out of the bark of the tree, leaving a distinctive D-shaped exit hole in the bark (Bauer et al., 2004). Adult EAB begin to emerge from trees in late spring, depending on temperature, and are able to fly immediately after emergence.
EAB attacks and kills all species of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that it has encountered. A total of 20 species of ash are found in North America, six of which are native to Canada; green ash (F. pennsylvanica), white ash (F. americana), black ash (F. nigra), and much less common blue ash (F. quadrangulata), and pumpkin ash (F. profunda), and Oregon ash (F. latifolia) in B.C. Blue ash may succumb to EAB, however, research indicated that it is mostly resistant. Recent evidence from the U.S. suggests that EAB may also attack the white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus). Fraxinus and Chionanthus both belong to the olive family (Oleaceae), so likely have similar chemical composition and lack of appropriate defenses.
The green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), pictured below, is a preferred host tree of the emerald ash borer.
Photo: Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia, bugwood.org
Signs and symptoms include crown dieback, bark deformities, woodpecker feeding holes, D-shaped exit holes in the tree, epicormic branches (shoots growing out of the lower trunk(commonly), but can be found on all parts of the trunk or branches), yellowing of foliage, and vertical cracks in the trunk (FIAS, NRCan, 2013).
Photo: Taylor Scarr, OMNRF (edited)
Galleries formed under the bark from EAB larval
feeding. D-shaped exit holes are circled in red.
Photo: Daniel Herms, The Ohio State University, bugwood.org
Typical signs of EAB infestation include crown dieback and epicormic branches.
City of London (2013)
Distribution in North America
Initial surveys in 2002 revealed the presence of EAB in seven counties in Southeastern Michigan. Currently, EAB has been detected in 25 states in the U.S. and two provinces in Canada, and continues to spread (see map) (emeraldashborer.info, 2015). In an attempt to control the spread of EAB in Canada, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has developed regulations that restrict the transport of ash materials (such as firewood) out of affected areas, under the Plant Protection Act (CFIA, 2011).
To slow or stop the spread of the emerald ash borer (EAB) to new areas, the CFIA uses measures to control the movement of potentially infested materials from regulated areas.
Emerald Ash Borer Regulated Areas of Canada
Map: CFIA (2014)
For more information on regulated areas of EAB, please visit the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) website by clicking here.
Ash trees provide many benefits within urban environments, such as increased property values, windbreaks, temperature regulation, pollution abatement, runoff prevention, and provision of wildlife habitat. With extensive ash tree mortality caused by EAB, the cost of replacing such services can be immense for municipalities. Further, the costs of treating infested trees, removing damaged and dead trees, and replanting where trees have been lost has already been very large (NRCan, 2014). You can calculate the cost estimate of treating vs. removing your ash tree by visiting the Canadian Forest Service Ash Projection Model (CFS-APM).
The City of Toronto, for example, estimates that it will cost the city $37 million over five years to cut and replace the city-owned ash trees that are killed by the insect. Further, as of 2012, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency had already spent over $30 million to manage the invasion of EAB and had cut over 30,000 trees to slow the spread of the beetle (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 2012). Over the next decade, some estimates suggest that 17 million trees will need to be removed and replaced within communities in the U.S. alone. This would cost approximately $10.7 billion, but could double if both urban and rural land is taken into account (Kovacs et al, 2010).
Ash is also commonly used for commercial lumber, pulp, tool handles, furniture and crating (Cappaert, 2005). Loss of ash could have a significant impact on these industries. As described in Poland and McCullough (2006), ash comprises approximately 7.5% of total hardwood saw-timber volume in the U.S., with a stumpage value of at least $25.1 billion (Federal Register, 2003).
Photo: Taylor Scarr, OMNRF
|Ash trees removed from an urban area in response to an emerald ash borer infestation. Urban tree removal comes at a high economic and ecological cost for municipalities across infested areas. The City of Toronto alone anticipates costs of $37 million to cut and replace ash trees throughout the city, resulting in loss of aesthetic value to neighbourhoods, and a loss of ecological services that the trees provide.
Emerald Ash Borer has already done extensive damage to ash tree populations in North America, killing millions of ash trees in Ontario, Quebec, and many U.S. states.
Although the direct effects of EAB on ash trees are fairly conspicuous, the indirect or downstream ecological impacts of EAB are much more difficult to quantify. Some potential ecological impacts are as follows: changes to forest structure, altered canopy gaps, reduced coarse woody debris, altered biogeochemical and nutrient cycling, and altered ecological interactions among organisms (both aquatic and terrestrial). Specifically, populations of native species that have specialized interactions with the threatened host, such as terrestrial arthropod species with a high level of association with ash, might be at increased risk (Gandhi and Herms 2010). Poland and McCullough (2006) suggest that the loss of green and black ash, which dominate riparian corridors and poorly drained sites, respectively, could produce the most significant ecological impacts.
Photo: David Nisbet, Invasive Species Centre
|Canopy openings caused by EAB damage can increase light penetration to the forest floor, and make the area more susceptible to understory plant invasions.
The aesthetic and recreation values that people place on forests and parks could be negatively impacted by EAB, since many ash trees within these natural areas have already died, or are susceptible to EAB infestation. Ash is a commonly planted street and park tree, and the loss of mature trees will negatively impact the aesthetic value of residential neighbourhoods and urban greenspace.
Photo: Taylor Scarr, OMNRF
| A mature ash tree is removed from a residential neighbourhood after being attacked by the emerald ash borer. Urban areas are at high risk to EAB infestations, as ash trees line many streets, and are commonly found in parks, and urban greenspace.
In Ontario, EAB has become well established and its distribution continues to increase from natural spread of the insect flying from tree to tree and from artificial spread through movement of infested ash materials. Management efforts no longer focus on eradication of the insect from Canada, as this is not a realistic outcome. Therefore, control efforts are focused on slowing the spread of EAB and striving to contain the infestation to currently infested and quarantined sites (NRCan, 2013).
Prevention of an emerald ash borer infestation in a new area is the most effective way to reduce long-term impacts. To assist in preventing an EAB infestation, follow these tips:
Don’t move firewood, as EAB larvae could be hiding inside
Learn to identify an EAB, and its signs and symptoms
Spread the word: educate family and friends of the potential threat
Report any sightings
Read more about PREVENTION
Detection is an essential step once emerald ash borer is suspected to be in a new area. Quick detection and identification of the pest allows for rapid response and treatment.
There are two main methods of detection used for emerald ash borer:
1. Detection Trapping
Detection traps baited with plant volatiles and/or pheromone lures are placed on host trees, and if EAB is present in the vicinity of the tree, individuals may become trapped, and collected by surveyors.
2. Branch Sampling
Branches are removed from a potential host tree, and inspected using specific guidelines for the presence of EAB larvae below the bark. Branch sampling allows for detection of the pest even at low population densities.
Learn how to perform both of these detection methods using the instructional videos below:
How to Hang an Emerald Ash Borer Detection Trap
Learn how to assemble and hang a prism trap to detect an emerald ash borer infestation
Branch Sampling for Emerald Ash Borer
Learn how to detect an emerald ash borer infestation using the branch sampling technique
For more information on branch sampling for EAB, see Detection of emerald ash borer in urban environments using branch sampling (Ryall et al., 2011)
Respond & Control
There are several control methods currently being used to contain EAB to infested sites within Southern Ontario:
EAB infested trees can be cut down and their wood is either burned or buried. This method is used particularly where the infestation centre is small, and strives to reduce EAB populations and slow their spread to surrounding areas (NRCan, 2013).
In Canada, chemical control of EAB is undertaken using a systemic insecticide with one of three active ingredients (imidacloprid, acephate, and azadirachtin) which is directly injected into the trunk of a recently infested tree, or a tree that is susceptible to infestation (NRCan, 2013). There are a four injectable insecticides registered in Canada for use against EAB. These chemicals are injected into the tree trunk and are then transported upwards through the tree. Even if a tree is injected with the insecticide, it may take several years to fully recover from the EAB infestation, and re-treatment may be needed to prevent additional infestation. For best results, the insecticide should be injected prior to infestation, or as soon after infestation as possible, and during adult EAB emergence in the late spring or early summer (OMAFRA, 2013).
|A technician injects an infested ash tree with
insecticide to control emerald ash borer
In Canada, two species of wasps from China have been approved for use as biological control agents of EAB. These parasitoids are being used in the attempt to control the spread of EAB and to reduce its population. Only one of the wasps, known as Tetrastichus planipennisi, is being released at present as it very specifically targets EAB. These wasps do not sting humans and their impacts on other native species are being closely monitored after release (CFIA, 2013).
There are also federal regulatory measures in place that strive to reduce artificial spread of EAB and contain their populations to infested areas. These regulations prohibit the movement of specific materials, such as ash material and firewood of all species, from specific infested areas of Ontario and Quebec. Violating these restrictions could result in fines and/or prosecution (CFIA, 2014).